Spanish police have turned on fellow emergency service providers during the referendum riots.
Videos have emerged of police forces using batons on firefighters as tensions flare in Spain.
The videos have been released as videos from across the region have been published on social media showing police use violence against protesters, including women and children.
Catalan citizens voted overwhelmingly for independence at the weekend, although the constitutional court banned the vote and almost 900 people have been hurt as police tried to stop it going ahead.
Officers from the national police and paramilitary Civil Guard seized ballot papers and boxes at polling stations.
Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy said Catalans had been fooled into taking part in an illegal vote.
Brutal scenes in Catalonia as police resort to violence to stop independence referendum
Since you are here
Since you are here, we wanted to ask for your help.
Journalism in Britain is under threat. The government is becoming increasingly authoritarian and our media is run by a handful of billionaires, most of whom reside overseas and all of them have strong political allegiances and financial motivations.
Our mission is to hold the powerful to account. It is vital that free media is allowed to exist to expose hypocrisy, corruption, wrongdoing and abuse of power. But we can't do it without you.
If you can afford to contribute a small donation to the site it will help us to continue our work in the best interests of the public. We only ask you to donate what you can afford, with an option to cancel your subscription at any point.
To donate or subscribe to The London Economic, click here.
The TLE shop is also now open, with all profits going to supporting our work.
The shop can be found here.
You can also SUBSCRIBE TO OUR NEWSLETTER .